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Glossary


A
AGV stands for Automated Guided Vehicle. AGVs are used to transport heavy items such as stacks of pallets, rolls of paper or metal, and auto parts along a defined route in a factory or warehouse.
ASRS or AS/RS is short for Automated Storage and Retrieval System. These systems are designed to automatically place and retrieve items from defined storage locations in a warehouse.

D
Deep learning is type of machine learning in which artificial neural networks take a layered or hierarchical approach to processing data. This artificial intelligence technique involves representation learning, in which each layer can transform data into a more abstract representation. Deep learning is used in speech recognition and natural language processing, image and video processing, and machine vision. The algorithms are used in finance, drug discovery, and robot training applications.

M
Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence in which systems use training data to recognize patterns and learn to make make decisions without explicit human programming. Machine learning algorithms can be supervised or unsupervised, depending on the level of human involvement in learning to predict outcomes. In reinforcement learning, machines learn through trial and error, weighting the results to improve behavior over time. Assumptions by the people building data sets or models can cause AI bias. Machine learning is used in object recognition and classification for robots and autonomous vehicles.

R
Robotics as a Service, commonly abbreviated as RaaS, is a business model in which a robotics vendor offers its hardware, software, and services for rent or lease rather than outright purchase. It is based on Software as a Service (SaaS) and is common in certain industries, such as construction and utilities. Robotics suppliers claim that RaaS lowers barriers to adoption by shifting risks and costs from capital expenditures, or CapEx, to operational expenditures, or OpEx. It can also provide recurring revenue for vendors. Service-level agreements may be managed by third parties such as integrators.
The Robot Operating System is an open-source middleware suite, intended as a flexible framework for robotics software developers. ROS includes tools and libraries to support community collaboration. It grew out of efforts at Stanford University and Willow Garage in the early 2000s and includes the ROS-Industrial, or ROS-I, and ROS 2 variants. Several commercial mobile robots are built on ROS, which is hosted by the Open Source Robotics Foundation Inc., or Open Robotics.

S
A cylindrical robot with two parallel rotary joints (horizontally articulated) which provide compliance in one selected plane. SCARA is short for Selectively Compliant Arm for Robotic Assembly or Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm.


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